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Have You Ever ‘Wondered?’ HOW MUCH FUEL DO AIRCRAFT NEED TO Carry? HOW DO YOU KNOW WHEN YOU’VE HAD ENOUGH FUEL? well here is the answer for that.

Regulators such as EASA and the FAA specify the minimum amount of fuel that a passenger jet must carry. Airlines.
are required to carry significantly more fuel for a flight than is required to get from point A to point B in
case of an unexpected event such as an airport closure or aircraft emergency. Commercial flights typically carry
at least one hour’s worth of extra fuel on top of what is required to get to their destination, but this is
frequently increased by the pilots depending on the day’s circumstances.

Airlines must adhere to regulatory requirements when transporting fuel. The majority of government policies are
broadly similar and are detailed in each airline’s operating manual. According to EASA regulations (which are
very similar to those of the FAA and other authorities), the Captain must ensure that he has the following
minimum fuel before departure:

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1. Travel Fuel
2. If a flight is planned with no alternate, divert fuel or hold fuel for 15 minutes.
3. Fuel Reserve
4. Emergency Fuel
5. Taxi fuel
6. Additional Fuel

Lets discuss each fuel and its usage.

1. Trip fuel
Fuel required from takeoff to touchdown, assuming departure on the SID from the assumed runway and arrival using
the STAR for the assumed arrival runway and routing based on the forecast wind.<break time=’2s’/>

2. Diversion Fuel

Fuel consumed during the go-around at the destination, as well as the climb, cruise, descent, approach, and
landing at the alternate airport of choice. Normally, this is calculated as the planned landing weight minus the
contingency fuel.

If no alternate flight is planned, the diversion fuel figure must be replaced by 15 minutes of holding fuel at
1500 feet above the destination airfield in standard conditions.

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3.  Reserve Fuel
Is there a minimum amount of fuel that must be present in tanks at the alternate airfield? (or destination if no
planned alternate). The figure is based on 30 minutes of fuel holding at 1500 feet in a clean configuration with
a planned landing weight.

4. Contingency Fuel
This is done to account for unanticipated deviations from the planned operation. For example, different winds or
temperatures than predicted, or ATC restrictions on levels and speed. It can be used at any time after delivery
(once aircraft moves under its own power). It cannot be planned to be used previously. It is more likely to be
used for flight or arrival delays.

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Facts Pilots Don’t Want You To Know…!!

5. Taxi Fuel
This is fuel for the APU to burn on the ground, start the engine, and taxi out. Most airlines calculate this
using statistical data and the taxi time in minutes.

Airbus concludes ATTOL with fully autonomous flight tests

6. Additional Fuel
If the existing total fuel is insufficient to cover an engine failure or de-pressurization at the most critical
point along the route, additional fuel is planned and loaded. Fuel planning must allow for a descent and trip
fuel to an alternate airfield, a 15-minute hold at 1500 feet, and an approach and landing.

He is an aviation journalist and the founder of Jetline Marvel. Dawal gained a comprehensive understanding of the commercial aviation industry.  He has worked in a range of roles for more than 9 years in the aviation and aerospace industry. He has written more than 1700 articles in the aerospace industry. When he was 19 years old, he received a national award for his general innovations and holds the patent. He completed two postgraduate degrees simultaneously, one in Aerospace and the other in Management. Additionally, he authored nearly six textbooks on aviation and aerospace tailored for students in various educational institutions. jetlinem4(at)


Pakistan’s Ambitious Plan to Acquire and Produce Chinese FC-31 Stealth Fighter

Pakistan’s Ambitious Plan to Acquire and Produce Chinese FC-31 Stealth Fighter

Pakistan is embarking on an ambitious endeavor to bolster its air defense capabilities with the acquisition and potential local production of the Chinese FC-31 stealth fighter jet.

Talks are reportedly underway between the Pakistan Air Force (PAF) and the Shenyang Aircraft Corporation, the developer of the FC-31, signaling a significant leap forward for Pakistan’s military aviation prowess.

The FC-31, a mid-sized, twin-engine fifth-generation fighter, promises advanced air combat capabilities, including stealth technology that surpasses anything currently in the PAF‘s fleet. With plans to retire the JF-17 production line by 2030, the FC-31 could emerge as the new flagship aircraft, offering unmatched performance and versatility.

Experts speculate that Pakistan’s interest in the FC-31 could also signal broader implications for the international market. As China develops both land and carrier versions of the FC-31, analysts foresee it becoming a cost-effective alternative to pricier options like the F-35, potentially challenging the dominance of the US aerospace industry and reshaping global strategic rivalries.

Adding complexity to the deal is China’s push for the WS-13 engine, previously rejected for the JF-17 but now under consideration for both the FC-31 and future JF-17 variants. Engine standardization could streamline logistical and maintenance processes for the PAF, further enhancing the appeal of the FC-31.

While negotiations continue, the success of the FC-31 acquisition and local production hinges on several factors, including the outcome of the WS-13 engine discussions. Pakistan’s pursuit of the FC-31 comes amidst its eagerness to replace its aging fleet, with previous attempts to upgrade its F-16s by the United States due to geopolitical pressures.

Amidst these developments, Pakistan previous interest in the Turkish-made Kaan fifth-generation fighter underscores its eagerness to replace its aging fleet. Despite previous attempts to secure upgrades for its F-16s from the United States, Pakistan’s quest for advanced aerial capabilities has led it to explore alternative avenues, with the FC-31 emerging as a promising contender in its pursuit of air superiority.

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Airbus presents new Wingman concept at ILA Berlin Airshow

Airbus presents new Wingman concept at ILA Berlin Airshow

At the prestigious ILA aerospace trade show in Berlin, Airbus Defence and Space made waves by introducing its pioneering Wingman concept, marking a significant leap forward in military aviation technology.

Teaming up with Helsing, Europe’s leading defense AI and software company, Airbus showcased a framework cooperation agreement aimed at revolutionizing the realm of artificial intelligence (AI) in defense.

Airbus Wingman

The Wingman concept represents a paradigm shift in aerial warfare, introducing unmanned platforms equipped with advanced AI capabilities to augment the capabilities of manned combat aircraft. Pilots in command aircraft such as the Eurofighter command these autonomous drones, positioning them to undertake high-risk mission tasks that would traditionally pose a significant threat to manned-only aircraft.

Central to the Wingman concept is Manned-Unmanned Teaming, wherein manned aircraft serve as “command fighters,” retaining ultimate control over mission decisions while delegating tactical tasks to unmanned systems. This synergistic collaboration promises to enhance mission flexibility, increase combat mass, and minimize risk exposure for pilots, thereby bolstering overall operational effectiveness.

The capabilities of the Wingman extend across a diverse spectrum of mission profiles, ranging from reconnaissance and target jamming to precision strikes against both ground and aerial targets. Equipped with advanced sensors, connectivity solutions, and a diverse array of armaments, the Wingman stands poised to redefine the operational landscape of modern air forces.

While the Wingman model showcased at ILA Berlin represents the pinnacle of current technological innovation, it also serves as a catalyst for future design iterations. As with any pioneering concept, refinement and evolution are inevitable, with each generation of the Wingman poised to push the boundaries of aerial warfare even further.

MQ-28 Ghost Bat

Boeing introduced the MQ-28 Ghost Bat, an unmanned combat aerial vehicle (UCAV), which made its maiden flight in February 2021. Developed by Boeing Australia, the MQ-28 leverages artificial intelligence to serve as a force multiplier for manned fighter jets.

The Ghost Bat is engineered to operate in tandem with existing military aircraft, enhancing and extending the capabilities of airborne missions. This cost-effective UCAV is designed to work as an intelligent teammate, complementing and amplifying the effectiveness of manned operations in various mission profiles.

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Take First Glimpse of USAF B-21 Raider, Latest Nuclear Stealth Bomber

Take First Glimpse of USAF B-21 Raider, Latest Nuclear Stealth Bomber

The United States Air Force (USAF) has unveiled the first photographs of the Northrop Grumman B-21 Raider bomber in flight.

These images were captured during test flights conducted by the B-21 Combined Test Force at Edwards Air Force Base, marking a significant milestone in the development of this sixth-generation aircraft.

Currently undergoing flight tests in California, the B-21 Raider represents the next generation of stealth bombers. With an estimated cost of around $700 million per aircraft, the B-21 Raider is poised to become a crucial component of the USAF’s arsenal for conventional Long Range Strike missions.

According to Air Force briefings, the B-21 Raider will form part of a comprehensive family of systems, encompassing Intelligence, Surveillance, and Reconnaissance capabilities, electronic warfare, communication systems, and more. Notably, the bomber will be nuclear-capable and adaptable for both manned and unmanned operations.

It boasts the flexibility to deploy a wide array of stand-off and direct-attack munitions, ensuring versatility in various combat scenarios. One of the B-21’s distinguishing features is its extensive integration of digital technology, as highlighted in discussions held during a Senate Armed Services Committee hearing.

Designed with an open systems architecture, the B-21 Raider is built to swiftly incorporate emerging technologies, ensuring its effectiveness against evolving threats over time. The B-21 Raider is slated to replace the aging B-1 Lancer and B-2 Spirit bombers, bolstering US national security objectives and providing reassurance to allies and partners worldwide.

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