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Flying into the Europe then your Aircraft should to be equipped with the latest ACAS

The Airborne Collision Avoidance System II (ACAS II) was introduced in order to reduce the risk of mid-air collisions or near mid-air collisions between aircraft.

What is ACAS ? 

The Airborne Collision Avoidance System II (ACAS II) was introduced in order to reduce the risk of mid-air collisions or near mid-air collisions between aircraft. It serves as a last-resort safety net irrespective of any separation standards. ACAS II is an aircraft system based on Secondary Surveillance Radar (SSR) transponder signals. ACAS II interrogates the Mode C and Mode S transponders of nearby aircraft (‘intruders’) and from the replies tracks their altitude and range and issues alerts to the pilots, as appropriate. Non-transponding aircraft are not detected.

Types of ACAS
  • ACAS I Gives Traffic Advisories (TAs) but does not recommend any manoeuvres.
  • ACAS II Gives Traffic Advisories (TAs) and Resolution Advisories (RAs) in the vertical sense (direction)
  • ACAS III Gives TAs and RAs in vertical and/or horizontal directions
How does it works ? 

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You are flying into the EU? As of 01/12/2015, your aircraft needs to be equipped with the latest airborne collision avoidance system.

Article 1

Subject matter and scope This Regulation lays down common airspace usage requirements and operating procedures for airborne collision avoidance to be fulfilled by:

(a) operators of aircraft referred to under Article 4(1)(b) and (c) of Regulation (EC) No 216/2008 undertaking flights into, within or out of the Union; and

(b) operators of aircraft referred to under Article 4(1)(d) of Regulation (EC) No 216/2008 undertaking flights within the airspace above the territory to which the Treaty applies as well as in any other airspace where Member States apply Regulation (EC) No 551/2004 of the European Parliament and of the Council

Article 2

Definitions For the purposes of this Regulation the following definitions shall apply:

(1) ‘airborne collision avoidance system (ACAS)’ means an aircraft system based on secondary surveillance radar (SSR) transponder signals which operates independently of ground-based equipment to provide advice to the pilot on potential conflicting aircraft that are equipped with SSR transponders;

2)‘airborne collision avoidance system II (ACAS II)’ means an airborne collision avoidance system which provides vertical resolution advisories in addition to traffic advisories;

(3) ‘resolution advisory (RA) indication’ means an indication given to the flight crew recommending a manoeuvre intended to provide separation from all threats or a manoeuvre restriction intended to maintain existing separation;

(4) ‘traffic advisory (TA) indication’ means an indication given to the flight crew that the proximity of another aircraft is a potential threat.

Article 3

Airborne collision avoidance system (ACAS)

1. The aeroplanes referred to in Section I of the Annex to this Regulation shall be equipped with and operated in accordance with the rules and procedures as specified in the Annex.

2. Member States shall ensure that operation of aeroplanes referred to in Article 1(2)(a) of Regulation (EC) No 216/2008 comply with the rules and procedures specified in the Annex in accordance with the conditions set out in that Article.

Article 4

Special provisions applying to operators subject to Council Regulation (EEC) No 3922/91 (1)

1. By derogation from provisions OPS 1.668 and OPS 1.398 of Annex III to Regulation (EEC) No 3922/91, Article 3 and the Annex to this Regulation shall apply for operators of aeroplanes referred to in Article 1(a).

2. Any other obligation imposed on air operators by Regulation (EEC) No 3922/91 as regards the approval, installation or operation of equipment shall continue to apply to ACAS II.

Article 5

Entry into force and application

1. This Regulation shall enter into force on the 20th day following its publication in the Official Journal of the European Union.

2. Articles 3 and 4 shall apply as of 1 March 2012.

3. By way of derogation from paragraph 2, in the case of aircraft with an individual certificate of airworthiness issued before 1 March 2012, the provisions of Article 3 and 4 shall apply as of 1 December 2015.

Original document: Download 

source: EASA (European Aviation  Safety Agency)

Note : Education Pursposes

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Pakistan’s Ambitious Plan to Acquire and Produce Chinese FC-31 Stealth Fighter

Pakistan’s Ambitious Plan to Acquire and Produce Chinese FC-31 Stealth Fighter

Pakistan is embarking on an ambitious endeavor to bolster its air defense capabilities with the acquisition and potential local production of the Chinese FC-31 stealth fighter jet.

Talks are reportedly underway between the Pakistan Air Force (PAF) and the Shenyang Aircraft Corporation, the developer of the FC-31, signaling a significant leap forward for Pakistan’s military aviation prowess.

The FC-31, a mid-sized, twin-engine fifth-generation fighter, promises advanced air combat capabilities, including stealth technology that surpasses anything currently in the PAF‘s fleet. With plans to retire the JF-17 production line by 2030, the FC-31 could emerge as the new flagship aircraft, offering unmatched performance and versatility.

Experts speculate that Pakistan’s interest in the FC-31 could also signal broader implications for the international market. As China develops both land and carrier versions of the FC-31, analysts foresee it becoming a cost-effective alternative to pricier options like the F-35, potentially challenging the dominance of the US aerospace industry and reshaping global strategic rivalries.

Adding complexity to the deal is China’s push for the WS-13 engine, previously rejected for the JF-17 but now under consideration for both the FC-31 and future JF-17 variants. Engine standardization could streamline logistical and maintenance processes for the PAF, further enhancing the appeal of the FC-31.

While negotiations continue, the success of the FC-31 acquisition and local production hinges on several factors, including the outcome of the WS-13 engine discussions. Pakistan’s pursuit of the FC-31 comes amidst its eagerness to replace its aging fleet, with previous attempts to upgrade its F-16s by the United States due to geopolitical pressures.

Amidst these developments, Pakistan previous interest in the Turkish-made Kaan fifth-generation fighter underscores its eagerness to replace its aging fleet. Despite previous attempts to secure upgrades for its F-16s from the United States, Pakistan’s quest for advanced aerial capabilities has led it to explore alternative avenues, with the FC-31 emerging as a promising contender in its pursuit of air superiority.

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China’s Indigenous HH-100 UAS Successfully Completes First Flight

China’s Indigenous HH-100 UAS Successfully Completes First Flight

In a significant milestone for China’s aviation industry, the HH-100 aerial commercial unmanned transportation system successfully completed its maiden flight, as announced by the Aviation Industry Corporation of China (AVIC) on Wednesday.

The HH-100 demonstrator took to the skies for its inaugural flight at a general aviation airport in Xi’an, located in northwest China’s Shaanxi Province. This successful test was conducted by AVIC, China’s leading aircraft manufacturer, marking a pivotal step in the development of the country’s unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) capabilities.

Developed independently by AVIC XAC Commercial Aircraft Co., Ltd., a subsidiary of AVIC based in Xi’an, the HH-100 consists of two main components: an unmanned aerial vehicle and a ground-based command-and-control station. This innovative system is designed to offer a cost-effective, high-payload solution for various transportation and logistical needs.

The HH-100 is notable for its low cost and large tonnage capabilities. With a designed maximum take-off weight of 2,000 kilograms and a payload capacity of 700 kilograms, it can transport approximately 4 cubic meters of cargo over a range of 520 kilometers. The drone’s maximum cruise speed is 300 kilometers per hour, and it can operate at altitudes up to 5,000 meters.

Primarily intended for feeder logistics, the HH-100 is also equipped to participate in a variety of other roles, including forest and grassland firefighting, fire monitoring, transportation and delivery of rescue materials, relay communication, and artificial rain enhancement. This versatility makes it a valuable asset in both commercial and emergency response operations.

Looking ahead, AVIC plans to develop a series of products based on the HH-100 platform, with models capable of carrying 5 tons, 10 tons, and even larger payloads. These future developments aim to meet the growing demand for large-scale, intelligent, low-cost, and highly reliable unmanned cargo planes.

The HH-100’s successful first flight marks an important achievement for AVIC and China’s aviation sector, showcasing the potential of homegrown technology to advance the country’s capabilities in unmanned aerial transportation. With its impressive range of features and applications, the HH-100 is poised to play a significant role in enhancing air-ground transportation connectivity and addressing various logistical challenges in the region.

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Russia’s Venture into Spare Parts Production for Western-Made Jets

Russia's Venture into Spare Parts Production for Western-Made Jets

In a strategic move to mitigate the challenges posed by the shortage of spare parts for foreign-made passenger aircraft, Russian carriers are charting a new course by turning to domestic alternatives. At the forefront of this shift are two groundbreaking projects unveiled at the St. Petersburg International Economic Forum on June 6.

Leading the charge is Protektor Group, a prominent Russian MRO provider, which has committed a substantial investment of RUB3.5 billion ($39 million) to establish a cutting-edge facility near Moscow Domodedovo airport.

This facility is slated to specialize in the production of spare parts tailored for Airbus A320 and Boeing 737 narrowbody jets, with operations expected to commence in 2026. With a projected workforce of 800 employees, the facility aims to address the pressing demand for critical components in the aviation sector.

This initiative aligns seamlessly with broader governmental endeavors outlined in June 2022, which envisioned the manufacture of 1,036 airplanes using solely Russian parts by 2030. Bolstering this ambition, the state allocated a substantial sum of 283 billion rubles (U.S. $3.1 billion) in January 2024 to propel the production of 609 aircraft, with a particular emphasis on medium-haul models.

Protektor’s trajectory towards this pivotal milestone has been marked by notable achievements, including receiving production organization approval from Rosaviatsia in 2024. Prior to this, the company had earned certification for the overhaul of landing gear for Boeing 737s, solidifying its position as a trusted entity in aircraft maintenance.

Beyond the realm of spare parts production, the Russian aviation industry is poised for a significant transformation as it gears up to redefine its identity. Sergey Chemezov, the head of Rostec, the state-owned conglomerate overseeing aerospace, engineering, and defense sectors, has unveiled ambitious plans to resurrect the renowned ‘Yakovlev‘ brand. This rebranding initiative extends across the spectrum of Russian-made airliners, signaling a new era of innovation and prominence.

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